Digitizing Fossils to Enable New Syntheses in Biogeography
— Digitization TCN: Collaborative Research: The Cretaceous World: Digitizing Fossils to Reconstruct Evolving Ecosystems in the Western Interior Seaway
Primary researchers: Julien Kimmig and Bruce S. Lieberman
During the Late Cretaceous (100-66 Mya), the epicontinental Western Interior Seaway (WIS) divided North America in two during an interval of greenhouse conditions that may serve as a proxy for Earth’s near-term future. The WIS supported diverse ecosystems of microorganisms (e.g., foraminifera, diatoms, and coccolithophores), invertebrates (e.g., mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms), and vertebrates, resulting in a richly abundant fossil record that has been heavily collected by paleontologists for over 100 years. Many iconic vertebrates from this system—especially large ray-finned fishes, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and pterosaurs—are on display at museums worldwide and amateur collectors have long treasured the fauna’s beautiful ammonoids. The WIS is also important scientifically for its potential in revealing how ancient marine species and ecosystems responded to the dynamic environment that characterized this greenhouse system. While the fossils of the WIS are well known taxonomically and very well represented in museum collections, their associated geographic and temporal locality data remain largely locked away on paper specimen labels in museum drawers. This “CRETACEOUS WORLD-TCN” seeks to greatly increase the scientific value of the eight most important U.S. museum collections of WIS fossils. Fundamentally, this TCN will generate new data that will enable scientists to answer novel questions about the interactions between a diversity of species, ecosystems, and environmental changes during a critical interval of Earth’s history. There will also be a variety of broader impacts associated with the project including the creation of an online Cretaceous Atlas website and an update to the Digital Atlas App for iPhone and iPads. A variety of Common Core- and Next Generation Science Standard-focused curricular materials will be developed for K-12 education, and there also will be additions to public programs and exhibits at several museums.
— The Paleoniches Thematic Collections Network
Primary researchers: Julien Kimmig, Una C. Farrell and Bruce S. Lieberman
We are databasing and georeferencing our large holdings of Late Paleozoic fossils. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation Emerging Frontiers and Advancing the Digitization of Biological Collections programs. The museum collections and fossils provide large amounts of data useful for studying what causes species to migrate, go extinct, or evolve over long time periods. They are of great relevance for considering how global change has and will continue to effect life on this planet and thus fundamental to addressing a variety of macroevolutionary and biogeographic questions. Our study will make this data available on line and accessible to scientists, facilitating many scientific analyses. We are collaborating with Alycia Stigall from Ohio University and Jonathan Hendricks from San Jose State University, as well as their partners, and Jim Beach from the Division of Informatics at the KUBI is also a co-PI. We have also developed working partnerships with Yale University and the University of Texas Memorial Museum. This work has supported graduate students Erin Saupe, Wes Gapp, and Sally Chang as well as current post-doc Michelle Casey and numerous undergraduate students. Our efforts will consider nearly 450,000 specimens belonging to 900 species from several museums throughout the U.S., and will focus on three different time periods in the history of life (the Pennsylvanian, Ordovician, and Neogene). We are also creating on line digital atlases illustrating and describing these fossils and providing maps showing where they can be found at http://www.digitalatlasofancientlife.org/. These will be useful for educating amateur paleontologists and K-12 students about fossils both in classrooms and in the field. Additional information on this project can be found here.