|Title||Development and Diversity of the Suspensorium of Trichomycterids and Comparison with Loricarioids Teleostei Siluriformes|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1990|
|Journal||Journal of Morphology|
|Keywords||Anatomy and Histology - Comparative anatomy 18002, Bones, connective and adipose tissue - Anatomy 19002, Dental biology - Anatomy 25508, Development, Evolution 11103, fasciae, General biology - Taxonomy, joints, nomenclature and terminology 01500, Osteichthyes  Ingestion and Assimilation Movement and Support Dental and Oral System Development Evolution and Adaptation General Life Studies Morphology Skeletal System Systematics and Taxonomy Pisces Vertebrata Chordata Animalia 00504|
Studies of ontogenetic series of trichomycterids and other catfishes reveal that the suspensorium of siluroids is highly specialized; several synapomorphies separate siluroids from other teleosts. In siluroids, the palatoquadrate is divided into pars autopalatina and pars pterygoquadrata and both are usually connected by the autopalatine-metapterygoid ligament. The ptergoquadrate is broadly joined to the dorsal limb of the hyoid arch, forming a cartilaginous hyomandibular-symplectic-pterygoquadrate plate in early ontogeny. This produces a special alignment of the hyomandibula and quadrate which is characteristic of siluroids. A symplectic bone is absent. The interhyal is absent in trichomyceterids and astroblepids. Dorsal and ventral limbs of the hyoid arch are connected by a ligament. A rudimentary interhyal and this ligament are present in primitive siluroids such as diplomystids and nematogenyids as well as loricariids. The metapterygoid arises as an anterior ossification of the pars pterygoquadrata in siluroids. The formation and position of the metapterygoid exhibit two patterns: 1) the metapterygoid develops as an ossification of a cartilaginous projection positioned between the future hyomandibula and quadrate in primitive catfishes (e.g., Diplomystes) as well as in Nematogenys, callichthyids, loricariids, and astroblepids; (2) the metapterygoid arises as an ossification of the cartilaginous projection (pterygoid process) positioned just above the articular facet of the quadrate for the lower jaw. An ossified anterior chondral pterygoid process of the complex quadrate is present in trichomycterids, whereas the process is absent (simple quadrate) in catfishes such as diplomystids, nematogenyids, callichthyids, and loricariids. The anterior membranous process of the quadrate of Astroblepus is non-homologous with the chondral pterygoid process of trichomycterids; both structures arose independently within the loricarioids. Despite topological relationships, the origin and development of bones reveal the presence of a chondral hyomanidbula which develops a large membranous outgrowth during ontogeny and a chondral metapterygoid in trichomycterids. The presence of a compound hyomandibula + metapterygoid or a compound metapterygoid + ectopterygoid + entopterygoid have no developmental support in trichomycterines or other siluroids. The "entopterygoid" of Nematogenys and Diplomystes arises as an ossification of a ligament. The dermal entopterygoid of other ostariophysans and the "entopterygoid: are homologous. An ectopterygoid or tendon bone "ectopterygoid" is absent in loricarioids. The suspensorium is an important structural system which has significant evolutionary transformations which characterize loricarioid subgroups; however, no character of the suspensorium supports the monophyly of the loricarioids.